CHECK LIST FOR COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANT

 

CHECK LIST FOR COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANT

 

  1. Project Name & Address
  2. Location of the project along with coordinates as well as ash pond
  3. General climatic conditions
  4. Accessibility of the project
  5. The study area should cover an area of 10km radius around the proposed site
  6. Land use of the study area as well as the project area shall be given
  7. Location of any National Park, Sanctuary, Elephant/Tiger Reserve (existing as well as proposed), migratory routes, if any, within 10km of the project site shall be specified and marked on the map duly authenticated by the
  8. Land requirement for the project to be optimized.  Requirement of ash pond area to be reduced.  Item wise break up of land requirement and its availability to be furnished.  It may be ensured that one third of the project area is covered under greenbelt.
  9. Location of intake and outfall points should be given.  These locations should be selected based on modeling studies.  Details of modeling and the results obtained there from should be furnished.  It may be kept in view that the intake and outfall points are away from the mangroves
  10. Topography of the area should be given clearly indicating whether the site requires any filling.  If so, details of filling, quantity of fill material required, its source, transportation etc. should be given.
  11. Impact on drainage of the area and the surroundings
  12. Information regarding surface hydrology and water regime and impact of the same, if any due to the project.
  13. One season site-specific meteorological data shall be provided
  14. One complete season AAQ data (except monsoon) to be given along with the dates of monitoring.  The parameters to be covered shall include SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx.  The location of the monitoring stations should be so decided so as to take into consideration the pre-dominant downwind direction, population zone and sensitive receptors including reserved forests.  There should be at least one monitoring station in the upwind direction.
  15. Impact of the project on the AAQ of the area.  Details of the model used and the input data used for modelling should also be provided.  The air quality contours may be plotted on a location map showing the location of project site, habitation nearby, sensitive receptors, if any.  The wind roses should also be shown on this map.  The prediction modelling results should also be provided for coastal fumigation conditions.
  16. Fuel analysis to be provided.  It may be ensured that the sulphur content in imported coal to be used as fuel shall not exceed 1.5% and ash content shall be limited to 12%.  No pet coke will be used as fuel in the project.
  17. Quantity of fuel required, its source and transportation.
  18. Source of water and its availability. Commitment regarding availability of requisite quantity of water from the competent authority.
  19. Details of rainwater harvesting and how it will be used in the plant.
  20. Examine the feasibility of zero discharge.  In case of any proposed discharge, its quantity, quality and point of discharge, users downstream etc. should be provided.
  21. Optimization of COC for water conservation.  Other water conservation measures proposed in the project should also be given.
  22. Details of water balance taking into account reuse and re-circulation of effluents.
  23. Details of greenbelt i.e. land with not less than 1500 trees per ha giving details of species, width of plantation, planning schedule etc.
  24. Detailed plan of ash utilization / management.
  25. Details of evacuation of ash
  26. Details regarding ash pond impermeability and whether it would be lined, if so details of the lining etc.
  27. Baseline data on ecology should also be covered in the EIA.
  28. Detailed R&R plan/compensation package for the project affected people shall be prepared taking into account the socio economic status of the area, homestead oustees, land oustees, landless laboureres.
  29. Details of flora and fauna duly authenticated should be provided.  In case of any scheduled fauna, conservation plan should be provided.
  30. Details regarding infrastructure facilities such as sanitation, fuel, restroom etc. to be provided to the labour force during construction as well as to the casual workers including truck drivers during operation phase.
  31. Public hearing points raised and commitment of the project proponent on the same.  An action plan to address the issues raised during public hearing and the necessary allocation of funds for the same should be provided.
  32. Measures of socio economic influence to the local community proposed to be provided by project proponent.  As far as possible, quantitative dimension to be given.
  33. Impact of the project on local infrastructure of the area such as road network and whether any additional infrastructure would need to be constructed and the agency responsible for the same with time frame.
  34. EMP to mitigate the adverse impacts due to the project along with item wise cost of its implementation.
  35. Risk assessment to be undertaken.  Based on the same, proposed safeguard measures should be provided.
  36. Any litigation pending against the project and /or any direction /order passed by any Court of Law against the project, if so, details thereof.

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE IN AMBIENT AIR  

DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE IN AMBIENT AIR

 

1.1           SCOPE

This method is applicable to the measurement of Hydrogen Sulphide in Ambient Air.

2.0           PRINCIPLE

The determination of Hydrogen sulphide by colorimetric method is based on the reaction which take place under suitable conditions between N,N-dimethyly –p-phenylenediamine sulphate, ferric sulphate and sulphide ions, resulting in the formation of methylene blue.

 

  • APPARATUS

3.1            Respirable Dust Sampler.

3.2            UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

3.3            Impinger

3.4            Calibrated Rota meter

 

4.0           REAGENTS

4.1            Pure distilled water

4.2            Absorbing solution – Dissolve 4.3 gm of Cadmium sulphate in water. Add 0.3 gm NaOH dissolved in a small amount of water and dilute to one liter. Mix well before use.

4.3            N,N- Dimethyl –p- phenylene –diamine-sulphate solution- Add 50 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid to 30 ml of distilled water and cool . Add 12 gm of N,N-dimethyl –p-phenylene diamine on 27.2 gm of N, N-dimethyl – p- phenylene –diamine sulphate. Stir the blank solution till it s completely dissolved.  Store it as stock solution in refrigerator. For the purpose of preparing standards, dilute 25 ml of the stock solution to one liter with dilute sulphuric acid (1:1).

4.4          Ferricc sulphate solution- Add excess of ferric sulphate in 100ml of water to obtain a saturated

Solution

 

4.5          Sulphamic acid solution – Dissolve 1.2 gm of Sodium sulphide of analytical garde ( N2S.9H2O),

In one liter of free – refrigerated distilled water and stopper it. Since the solution is very

Unstable, it shall be prepared just before use. It shall be stored in refrigerator. Standardize this

Solution against std. Sodium Thio sulphate( 0.025N) as follows.

 

Take 100 ml of distilled water in 250 ml conical flask and add 20 ml of std. iodine solution

(0.025N). Add 25 ml hydrochloric acid (0.1N) and titrate with Thiosulphate solution using

starch solution indicator. Note the titrate reading as A.

 

Take 100 ml of distilled water in 250 ml conical flask and add 20 ml of standard iodine solution (0.025N). Add 25 ml of HCL ( 0.1N) and 20 ml of sodium sulphide solution and repeat the titration with the thiosulphate solution. Note the titrant reading as B.

 

Calculate the strength of Sodium sulphide solution in terms of Hydrogen sulphide as .

 

( A- B) X Normality of thiosulpahe X 17 X 103

H2S, µg/ml = —————————————————————-

20

 

4.6          For the purpose of preparing std. for comparison, dilute a portion of the Sodium sulphide

Solution to that it contains equivalent of 10 µg/ml of Hydrogen sulphide.

 

 

4.7          Preparation of standards

 

Prepare the different concentration of Hydrogen sulphide solution as follows.

 

4.7.1      Arrange 11 tubes (50 ml capacity) in line and put serial numbers of them.

 

4.7.2      Add 25 ml of absorbing solution to each tube.

 

4.7.3      As indicated below, add to each of the 10 test tubes an amount of dilute sodium sulphide

solution necessary to give a concentration series of 1 µg to 25 µg in increasing order.

 

Tube No.  1           2            3            4            5            6           7           8           9             10

Blank

Amount in

ml of std.

sulphide solution 0        0.1        0.2        0.3        0.5        0.7      1.0      1.3        1.7      2.0        2.5

 

4.7.4      Add I ml of sulphamic acid , 0.6 ml 0f N, N-dimethyle-p-phenelene –diamine sulpahte solution and 0.05ml of ferric sulphate solution to each of the test tubes in that order, shaking well after each addition

 

4.7.5      Make up the volumes to 20 ml in each of the tubes with distilled water and mix thoroughly.

 

4.8          Preparation of calibration curve.

Allow 30 min for the development of full color in the tubes. Measure the color intensity of the solution in a spectrophotometer at 670 nm on transmission scale. Use the reagent blank as control. Draw the calibration curve of percent transmission versus micro-gramms of H2S

 

5.0         PROCEDURE

5.1          Sample Collection

 

5.1.1      Assemble sampling train. Place 35 ml capacity Impinger.

 

5.1.2      Procedure describe for short term and for long term sampling.

 

5.1.3      Short term sampling ( 30 min to 1 hour).- Place 20 ml of the absorbing solution in an impinger. Collect the sample at the flow rate of 1 lpm for 30 min or at 0.5 lpm for 1 hour using rotameter. Sealed the absorbing reagent from sunlight during ad after the sampling by covering the impinge with aluminium foil to prevent deterioration. Determine the volume of air sampled by multiplying the flow rate by the time in minutes and record the atmospheric pressure and temperature. Remove and stopper the impinger.

 

5.1.4      Twenty four hour sampling- Place 20 ml of the absorbing solution in an impinge and collect the sample at the flow rate of 0.2lpm for 24 hours. Make sure that no entrainment of solution results with the impinge. During collection and storage, protect from direct sunlight.

 

6.0         ANALYSIS

 

6.1          General; Both the samples and each of the reagents to be used for analysis shall be deoxygenated by passing a current of pure nitrogen through them for at least 5 min just before use

6.2          Sample preparation: if the precipitate is observed in the sample, remove it by centrifugation.

 

6.3          Add 1 ml of sulphamic acid solution Add 0.6 ml of dilute N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine sulphate solution and 0.05ml of ferric sulphate solution to the sample Mix well by shaking solution and 0.05 ml of ferric sulphate to the sample . Mix wee by shaking the impinge after the addition o f each reagent. Makeup of the evaporation losses by adding the absorbing solution to 20 ml mark of the imoinger. Allow the mixture to dvelop full colour by letting it stand for 30 min. Also prepare a reagent blank flowing the above procedure.

 

6.4          Measure the colour intensity of the sample in a spectrophotometer at 670nm . Compute from calibration curve the concentration in micrograms of Hydrogen sulphide in the sample.

 

7.0         CALCULATION

 

Micrograms of Hydrogen sulphide in the sample

Hydrogen Sulphide , µg/m3=  —————————————————————- X 10 3

Liters of air sampled

 

8.0           REFERENCE

Indian standard Methods for Measurement of Air Pollution IS 5182 Part VII- 1973

(Reaffirmed 2003).

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Indoor Air Quality Test can be used to test for a variety of common threats to indoor air quality. It is important that the test is capable of testing for all possible contaminants or the contaminant with which you are remediating.

Common Contaminants

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • Mold, Yeast, Bacteria
  • Hydrothermal:Humidity, temperature
  • Particulate Matter:pollen, dust,
  • Formaldehyde:and all aldehydes; carpet, wood paneling.

 

Indoor Air Contaminants & Sources

Contamination Sources
VOCs
(Volatile Organic Compounds)
Perfumes, hairsprays,
furniture polish
Cleaning solvents
Hobby and craft supplies
Pesticides
Carpet dyes and fibers
Glues, adhesives, sealants.
Paints, stains, varnishes, strippers
Wood preservatives
Dry cleaned clothes, moth repellents
Air fresheners
Stored fuels, and automotive products
Contaminated water
Plastics
Formaldehyde
Paricleboard, interior-grade plywood
Cabinetry, furniture
Urea Formaldehyde foam insulation
Carpet, fabrics
Lead Lead-based paint Exterior dust and soil
Carbon Monoxide
carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide
Improperly operating gas or oil furnace/hot water heater, fireplace, wood stove Unvented gas heater/kerosene heater
RSP (respirable particulates) Fireplace, woodstove
Unvented gas heater
tobacco products
Unvented kerosene heater
PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) Fireplace, woodstove
Unvented kerosene heater
Tobacco products
Biological contaminants Plants, animals, birds, humans
Pillows, bedding, house dust
Wet or damp materials
Standing water
Humidifiers, evaporative coolers
Hot water tank
Sulfur Dioxide Combustion of sulfur-containing fuels (primarily kerosene heaters)

 

Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution

The effects of indoor air pollutants range from short-term effects eye and throat irritation  to long-term effects  respiratory disease and cancer.

Exposure to high levels   of some pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, can even result in immediate death.

Also, some indoor pollutants can magnify the effects of other indoor pollutants.

Based on cancer risk alone, The scientists have ranked indoor air pollution as one of the most important environmental problems

Symptoms of Indoor Air Pollution

Common symptoms of Indoor Air Pollution

Symptoms of poor indoor air quality are very broad and depend on the contaminant. They can easily be mistaken for symptoms of other illnesses such as allergies, stress, colds and influenza. The most common symptoms are:

  • coughing
  • sneezing
  • watery eyes
  • fatigue
  • dizziness
  • headaches
  • upper respiratory congestion

If you notice relief from your symptoms soon after leaving a particular room or building, your symptoms may be caused by indoor air contaminants.

Respiratory Health Effects

To determine the cause of the particular health effect:

  • Rhinitis, nasal congestion (inflammation of the nose, runny nose)
  • Epistaxis (nose bleeds)
  • Dyspnea (difficulty of breathing or painful breathing)
  • Pharyngitis (sore throat), cough
  • Wheezing, worsening asthma
  • Severe lung disease

 

 

 

More Severe Health Effects

  • Conjunctival (eye) irritation
  • Rashes
  • Fever, chills
  • Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat, sometimes leading to shortness of breath)
  • Headache or dizziness
  • Lethargy, fatigue, malaise
  • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
  • Myalgia (muscle pain)
  • Hearing loss

 

Common Indoor Air Pollutants

In general, emissions from indoor contamination sources in a building are often the primary determinant of IAQ. They include:

  • Building materials (deteriorated asbestos-containing insulation, wet/damp carpet, pressed wood products, cabinetry)
  • Consumer products
  • Cleaners, household products
  • Furnishings, carpets, couches, chairs
  • Central heating, cooling, and humidifaction devices (HVAC)
  • Combustion appliances and processes (oil, gas, kerosene, wood, coal, and tobacco products)
  • Biological growth
  • Building occupants
  • Outdoor sources (radon, pesticides, outdoor air pollution)

 

 

 

 

 

Simple Solutions to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution

  1. Source Control
    We cannot stress the importance of reducing, and/or removing the source of the indoor air pollution. This may be a contaminated carpet, wall, or even ventilation (HVAC) system.
  2. Ensure proper ventilation
    Once the sources to pollution have been removed, the air must be cleaned and circulated with natural outdoor air. Increase the amount of outdoor, natural air coming indoors. Open windows, doors, turn on fans in windows, attics, crawl spaces, turn on kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans, and air conditioning units with vent open.
  3. Ensure proper air filtration/cleaning
    The EPA provides a comprehensive list of  Air Cleaners ranging from small table-top versions to sophisticated whole-house models.
  4. Replace Old Filters
    Old filters in heating, air conditioning, and ventilation units (HVAC), can be a major cause of indoor air pollution, and must be monitored, and replaced if necessary.
  5. Avoid Painting, Spraying Combustible products indoors (or near ventilation units).
  6. Maintain clean roof, gutters, storm drainage
    To prevent water leaks, and moisture buildups in the Office , basement, etc.
  7. Reduce and Remove Moisture
    The simple fact is that mold needs moisture to live. Control moisture and control mold.
  8. Leave Asbestos Up To The Professionals
    The single worst thing anyone can do is remove, or stir up asbestos-containing objects; sheetrock, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, etc.
  9.  Test Your Office
    If the problem persists, use a simple  ,   hire an indoor air quality professional for a consultation.

Solutions to Indoor Air Pollution at the Office/Workplace

Things Everyone in the Office Can Do

  • Do not block air vents or grills
  • Clean up water, liquid spills quickly
    Alert management with any notice of water leaks, or spills.
  • Maintain reasonable temperature and humidity levels
    High humidity can lead to moisture, and mold, as well as discomfort and decreased comfort, productivity, etc.
  • Proper Space Planning
    Place furniture, desks, and computers with ventilation systems in mind.